Thiruvalluvar: Know About Bio, Wiki And More Of Tamil philosopher and poet

Thiruvalluvar: Know About Bio, Wiki And More Of Tamil philosopher and poet

Thiruvalluvar, often referred to as Valluvar, was a well-known Tamil philosopher and poet. His most famous work, Thirukkua, is a collection of couplets addressing morality, politics, the economy, and love. The book is regarded as a unique and highly regarded piece of Tamil literature.

According to Kamil Zvelebil, an expert in Tamil literature, there are very few reliable sources of information about Thiruvalluvar. Different biographers have drawn different conclusions about his life and likely background from his literary works. All of the major Indian faiths have attempted to claim Thiruvalluvar as being secretly inspired (crypto-) or initially coming from their tradition. There are also unreliable hagiographic and legendary stories of Thiruvalluvar’s life. About his family history, his place of origin, or his religious beliefs, little is known with certainty. Based on traditional tales and linguistic analysis of his writings, his floruit is variously dated from the 4th century BCE to the early 6th century CE. It is assumed that he resided at least in the town of Mylapore (a neighborhood of modern-day Chennai). Valluvar was born in 31 BCE according to Maraimalai Adigal; however, Kamil Zvelebil suggests that the Thirukkua and Thiruvalluvar are best dated to around 500 CE.

Since his time, Valluvar has had an impact on a variety of researchers in the ethical, social, political, economic, theological, philosophical, and spiritual domains. His literary works are considered classics of Tamil culture, and he has long been revered as a great elder.

There is hardly any reliable information on Thiruvalluvar’s life. In actuality, it is impossible to know with certainty either his real identity or the original title of his work. It is renowned that Monsieur Ariel, a 19th-century French translator of his work, referred to it as “the book without a name by an author without a name.” The subsequent literature Tiruvalluva Maalai is when the name Thiruvalluvar¬† first appears.

Thiruvalluvar
Thiruvalluvar

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Career Of Thiruvalluvar

Thiruvalluvar’s work Thirukkua and other Tamil literature that quotes him are the main sources for the conjectures regarding his life. Zvelebil claims that Thiruvalluvar was “likely a knowledgeable Jain with eclectic leanings and intimate contact with the early works of Tamil classical period and some understanding of the Sanskrit legal and didactic writings (subhashita)”. He also had some familiarity with the early works of Tamil.

The earliest literary mention of the Thiruvalluvar legend is found in the Shaivite Hindu scripture Tiruvalluva Maalai, however it is still undated. Because an early 19th-century commentary referred to him as “Valluvan” (Valluvar), whose treatise brought the “esoteric wisdom of the Vedas to the world,” this literature garnered prominence throughout the colonial era. The Kurral is discussed in the original text in relation to Sanskrit literature. The original text does not mention Valluvan being “born in a low caste,” but the commentary does. Stuart Blackburn claims that this remark looks to be extra-textual and might be based on oral tradition. There are no further pre-colonial literary sources to back up any of the myths surrounding Thiruvalluvar’s existence. Numerous Thiruvalluvar legends were published in both Indian languages and English beginning in the early 19th century.

Inferred from selected passages of his book or hagiographies published since Tamil Nadu’s colonial era began are several statements regarding Valluvar’s family history and profession in colonial era literature. According to one historical account, he was a weaver from Paraiyar. He must have been from the agricultural caste of Vellalars, according to another opinion, because he extols agriculture in his writing. Another claims he was an outcast who was born to a Brahmin father and a Pariah mother. According to Mu Raghava Iyengar’s theory, the word “valluva” in his name is a variant of the word “vallabha,” which is the name of a royal official. S. Vaiyapuri Pillai said that he was “the chief of the proclaiming lads similar to a trumpet-major of an army” and that his name came from “valluvan,” a Paraiyar caste of royal drummers. Thiruvalluvar resided in Mylapore and was most likely married to Vasuki. Tradition has it that Valluvar passed away on the day of Anusham during the Tamil month of Vaikasi.

They were the offspring of Bhagwan, a Brahmin father, and Adi, a Pulaya mother. Three sons (Valluvar, Kapilar, and Atikaman), four sisters, and two daughters are listed as the couple’s seven children in the poem (Avvai, Uppai, Uruvai, and Velli). This fabled account, however, is false. Based on its language, Kamil Zvelebil places Kapilar Agaval in the 15th century CE. Many biographies state that Valluvar’s wife’s name was Vasuki, although the veracity of such information is questionable.

Many claim he visited a mountain and encountered the fabled Agastya and other sages in addition to the different accounts of his birth circumstances. During his return journey, he kills a demon, performs miracles like causing floods and making them retreat, touches a grounded ship which miraculously then floats and sails off, his wife Vasuki cooks sand which comes out as boiled rice, and many more. He also sits under a tree whose shadow sits still over Thiruvalluvar and does not move throughout the day. These and other related elements of these hagiographic legends are thought to be fiction and ahistorical by scholars, a trait shared by “international and Indian folklore.” There is also some dispute regarding the traditional stories’ claims of pariah status, high birth, and poor birth.

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Early Life Of Thiruvalluvar

Thiruvalluvar’s actual birthday is unknown. His work Tirukkua has been variously dated between 300 BCE and the sixth century CE. It was the final creation of the third Sangam, and, according to ancient traditions, it underwent a divine test (which it passed). The text is dated to as early as 300 BCE by the scholars who subscribe to this tradition, including Somasundara Bharathiar and M. Rajamanickam. K. K. Pillay, a historian, put it in the first century CE. According to Zvelebil, these early dates, such as 300 BCE to 1 BCE, are inappropriate and are not supported by textual evidence. The Tirukkua’s syntax and vocabulary, as well as his reliance on some older Sanskrit sources, imply that he lived after the time of the “early Tamil bardic poets” but before the Tamil bhakti poets.

The work was dated to sometime around or after the sixth century CE by S. Vaiyapuri Pillai in 1959. His argument is supported by the Tirukkua’s abundance of loanwords from Sanskrit, the Tirukkua’s awareness of and debt to specific Sanskrit works that are most likely from the first half of the first millennium CE, and the Tirukkua’s grammatical innovations. In Tirukkua, Pillai published a list of 137 loanwords from Sanskrit. Thomas Burrow and Murray Barnson Emeneau, two later academics, demonstrate that 35 of them are Dravidian native words rather than borrowings from Sanskrit. According to Zvelebil, some other words have etymologies that are unclear; further research may reveal that these words are Dravidian. According to Zvelebil, some of the teachings in the Tirukkua are “undoubtedly” based on the then-current Sanskrit literature, such as the Arthashastra and Manusmriti, and the 102 surviving loan words from Sanskrit are “not inconsequential.”

The Tamil Nadu government declared 31 BCE as Valluvar’s year in January 1935. The Valluvar Year was incorporated into the calendar as recommended by Maraimalai Adigal. So, any year of the common period is multiplied by 31 to determine the Valluvar year.

Birthplace Of Thiruvalluvar

The specific location of Valluvar’s birth is still unknown, like the majority of other facts about him. It is believed that Valluvar first resided in Madurai before moving to Mayilapuram or Thirumayilai (present-day Mylapore in Chennai). According to some versions, he was born in Mayilapuram and later relocated to Madurai so that he could publish his writings at the royal court. While verse 21 of the Tiruvalluva Maalai claims that Valluvar was born in Madurai, the poem Kapilar Akaval indicates that Valluvar was actually born on top of an oil-nut or iluppai tree (Madhuca indica) in Mayilapuram.

Valluvar was allegedly born at Thirunayanarkurichi, a village in the current Kanyakumari district, according to a three-person study team from the Kanyakumari Historical and Cultural Research Centre (KHCRC), who made this claim in 2005. They claimed Valluvar was a monarch who governed the “Valluvanadu” area in the hilly regions of the Kanyakumari district, according to an old Kani tribal elder.

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Religion Of Thiruvalluvar

Most people believe that Valluvar belonged to either Jainism or Hinduism. However, due to the non-denominational nature of the Kural text, nearly every Indian religion, including Christianity, has claimed the writing and its creator as one of their own. These Christian assertions, meanwhile, didn’t start to circulate until the colonial missionaries arrived in India. These assertions have been shown to be untrue. Valluvar must have “practised religious eclecticism, maintained unwavering trust in dharma but should have shunned religious symbols and superstitious beliefs,”

Jainism

Writers in the early 19th century hypothesized that Thiruvalluvar might have been a Jain. The Tamil society discusses whether Thiruvalluvar was a Jain or a Hindu, according to Ellis’ 1819 translation. If Thiruvalluvar was a Jain, it calls into doubt the origins of both the popular colonial controversy surrounding his birth and the classic Thiruvalluvar stories.

Because the arhat is depicted as “standing on the lotus” or because the arhat in the Jain idea is the god with the lotus as his chariot, these, in Zvelebil’s words, are “very much Jaina-like.” There are exceptions, says Zvelebil, when Thiruvalluvar refers to this God as “the Primeval Lord” and “the King, the Monarch” in the Hindu classic Manusmriti (1.6). According to Zvelebil, the Hindu scholar Parimelalhagar (Parimelalakar), who provided a commentary on the Kural text in the 13th century and acknowledged that these epithets are “quite well suitable” to a Jain Arhat, supports his proposal.

Hinduism

Others believe that Thiruvalluvar belonged to Hinduism based on his works. His Tirukkua teachings have been matched by Hindu scholars to those found in Hindu texts. This claim is supported by Valluvar’s discussion of ahimsa, or non-violence, which is a central idea in both Jainism and Hinduism. An army has a responsibility to kill in battle, and a ruler must execute criminals for justice, are just a few of the 700 porul couplets that are devoted to various facets of statecraft and warfare while simultaneously extolling the virtue of nonviolence. These non-mystic realism teachings and the ready for fair conflict doctrine are shared with Hinduism.

, often referred to as Valluvar, was a well-known Tamil philosopher and poet. His most famous work, Thirukkua, is a collection of couplets addressing morality, politics, the economy, and love. The book is regarded as a unique and highly regarded piece of Tamil literature.

According to Kamil Zvelebil, an expert in Tamil literature, there are very few reliable sources of information about Thiruvalluvar. Different biographers have drawn different conclusions about his life and likely background from his literary works. All of the major Indian faiths have attempted to claim Thiruvalluvar as being secretly inspired (crypto-) or initially coming from their tradition. There are also unreliable hagiographic and legendary stories of Thiruvalluvar’s life. About his family history, his place of origin, or his religious beliefs, little is known with certainty. Based on traditional tales and linguistic analysis of his writings, his floruit is variously dated from the 4th century BCE to the early 6th century CE. It is assumed that he resided at least in the town of Mylapore (a neighborhood of modern-day Chennai). Valluvar was born in 31 BCE according to Maraimalai Adigal; however, Kamil Zvelebil suggests that the Thirukkua and Thiruvalluvar are best dated to around 500 CE.

Since his time, Valluvar has had an impact on a variety of researchers in the ethical, social, political, economic, theological, philosophical, and spiritual domains. His literary works are considered classics of Tamil culture, and he has long been revered as a great elder.

 

Thiruvalluvar
Thiruvalluvar

Life Of Thiruvalluvar

There is hardly any reliable information on Thiruvalluvar’s life. In actuality, it is impossible to know with certainty either his real identity or the original title of his work. The author of Tirukkural is not stated in the text. It is renowned that Monsieur Ariel, a 19th-century French translator of his work, referred to it as “the book without a name by an author without a name.” The subsequent literature Tiruvalluva Maalai is when the name Thiruvalluvar (lit. Saint Valluvar) first appears.

Thiruvalluvar’s work Thirukkua and other Tamil literature that quotes him are the main sources for the conjectures regarding his life. Zvelebil claims that Thiruvalluvar was “likely a knowledgeable Jain with eclectic leanings and intimate contact with the early works of Tamil classical period and some understanding of the Sanskrit legal and didactic writings (subhashita)”.

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